You can add a Linux workstation to your ClearOS Domain. This howto will show you the steps that you need to take to get your workstation to use domain credentials to authenticate.
Because of the variety of Linux distributions out there I will be targeting this howto towards Ubuntu 10.04.1. There may be key differences between distros that should be listed in the Appendix of this article.
You should already have your ClearOS server configured as a domain controller and user accounts. For purposes of this demonstration, we will make an account called Tom Jones. We will give him the username 'tjones'.
Start with a fresh install of Ubuntu. We will assume that you have already configured it with your initial user.
You will also need to ensure that you have connectivity to the Internet for this installation. Log in to the workstation and let's get started.
Also, decide if you want cached authentication for this workstation. If this is a laptop and is used off-site, you will definitely want this feature. If security is a high concern and your workstation will never leave the environment, you may specifically NOT want it.
We will need a command line for most of this stuff. Open the terminal application under <navigation> Applications » Accesories » Terminal </navigation>.
We will be doing a lot of configuration as root. Type the following in the terminal window:
sudo su -
You will be prompted for a password.
Type the following:
apt-get install winbind samba
I also installed the ssh package because I wanted to copy and paste much of what is in this howto.
Add the following lines to the /etc/samba/smb.conf in the [global] section.
security = domain netbios name = UBUNTU_01 password server = system.clearos.lan workgroup = ENTERPRISE idmap uid = 10000000-19999999 idmap gid = 10000000-19999999 winbind use default domain = yes winbind enum users = no winbind enum groups = no winbind use default domain = yes template shell = /bin/bash template homedir = /home/%D/%U domain master = no winbind enum users = yes winbind enum groups = yes add machine script = /usr/sbin/useradd -d /var/lib/nobody -g 100 -s /bin/false -M %u
Of particular note above, make sure your netbios name, password server, and workgroup parameters match the local machine name which is unique on the network, the DNS name that is resolvable for the ClearOS server, and the Domain name for your ClearOS server respectively.
Find and delete the line that says:
workgroup = WORKGROUP
Lastly, run the testparm command to validate your entries are in the configuration and that it looks good.
Make a directory for your domain users that matches the name of your domain. In this example, our domain is 'ENTERPRISE' so we will run the following:
Modify your /etc/nsswitch.conf so that it looks like this:
passwd: compat winbind group: compat winbind shadow: compat winbind hosts: files dns wins networks: files protocols: db files services: db files ethers: db files rpc: db files netgroup: nis
There are several changes to pam.d that will need to change from the default format. There are 4 files that need to be either replaced, edited or modified.
Blow away and replace your /etc/pam.d/common-account file away with the following to command from the shell.
cp /etc/pam.d/common-account /etc/pam.d/common-account~ echo "account sufficient pam_winbind.so" > /etc/pam.d/common-account echo "account required pam_unix.so" >> /etc/pam.d/common-account
Blow away and replace your /etc/pam.d/common-auth file away with the following to command from the shell.
cp /etc/pam.d/common-auth /etc/pam.d/common-auth~ echo "auth sufficient pam_winbind.so" > /etc/pam.d/common-auth echo "auth required pam_unix.so nullok_secure use_first_pass" >> /etc/pam.d/common-auth
Using vi or your favorite editor, add a snippet to the end of /etc/pam.d/common-password in the line:
password [success=2 default=ignore] pam_unix.so obscure sha512
So that it has min=4 max=50
password [success=2 default=ignore] pam_unix.so obscure sha512 min=4 max=50
Add a entry to the /etc/pam.d/common-session by running the following command:
echo "session required pam_mkhomedir.so umask=0022 skel=/etc/skel" >> /etc/pam.d/common-session
With all of these modifications, it is time to reboot the workstation.
Don't forget to login and switch user back to root.
sudo su -
Run the following to join the workstation to the domain. Replace the relevant value for the domain name. Here we used 'ENTERPRISE'.
net rpc join -U winadmin
You will be prompted for winadmin's password. Once you supply it you should get the following message:
Joined domain ENTERPRISE.
Add the domain_users group to the sudoers list by editing the /etc/sudoers
echo "%allusers ALL=(ALL) ALL" >> /etc/sudoers
Time to reboot again.
If everything is copacetic then your install will be done and you can now log in as a domain member. If you have difficulty or would like to see some specifics about your environment or login information you can use some of the tools below.
The command wbinfo can provide lots of useful facts about your winbind connectivity.
wbinfo -n username
Tells us the SID of a particular user.
Shows all the domains on the local segment, you should have BUILTIN, UBUNTU_01 (the workstation name), and ENTERPRISE (the domain name).
wbinfo -i username
Shows the entry for the user as it would exist in a password file.
The net command is a powerful tool for Samba administration. You will need to sudo to run many of these commands.
Returns the SID for the domain and the local workstation.
There are lots of these, type 'net' to get a list of all the things.
A very useful command for giving a sum total of all the entries from the combined local and samba lists. The getent utility can show a bunch of stuff including passwd, group, hosts, services, protocols, or networks.
Shows all the users for the system. It enumerates the local list and the winbind list together.
Shows all the groups. Like the passwd version, it will show local and winbind stuff.
This section contains some useful scripts and other hacks for making cool stuff happen.
You should be able to browse for shares on the network by using the <navigation> Places » Connect to Server… </navigation> option.
Gtk-bookmarks stores information about favorite locations to connect to. The advantage is that the resource is user specific so it in more secure than attaching a user to a common mountpoint.
#!/bin/bash domain="ENTERPRISE" server="clearos" share="$USER" directory="" desktopalias="$share" gtkbookmarkfile=$HOME/.gtk-bookmarks bookmark="smb://$domain;$USER@$server/$share/$directory $desktopalias" directorybookmark=`find .gtk-bookmarks | xargs grep "$bookmark"` if [ -z "$directorybookmark" ] then echo "Bookmark added" echo "$bookmark" >> $gtkbookmarkfile else echo "Bookmark exists" fi
Taking this workstation or laptop on the road? You will not be able to authenticate if you cannot talk to your server. If you need this capability, do the following.
Add the following line to your /etc/samba/smb.conf file in the [global] section:
winbind offline logon = yes
Run the following commands to fix the common-account file in the /etc/pam.d/ directory:
echo "account sufficient pam_winbind.so cached_login" > /etc/pam.d/common-account echo "account required pam_unix.so" >> /etc/pam.d/common-account
Make a file called /etc/security/pam_winbind.conf. Add the following:
# # pam_winbind configuration file # # /etc/security/pam_winbind.conf # [global] # request a cached login if possible # (needs "winbind offline logon = yes" in smb.conf) cached_login = yes
Log off and back in again as the user. Then reboot the workstation off the network.